I took this photo in British Columbia during our Canadian_ US west coast tour
In 1850's this RCMP are the ones who are tasked to keep law and order in the Canadian Pacific province, east of the prairie provinces
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) (French: Gendarmerie royale du Canada (GRC), literally ‘Royal Gendarmerie of Canada’; colloquially known as Mounties, and internally as ‘The Force’) is the federal, national, and paramilitary police force of Canada, and one of the most recognized of its kind in the world.
The RCMP was formed in 1920 by the merger of the Royal Northwest Mounted Police (RNWMP, founded 1873) with the Dominion Police (founded 1868). The former was originally named the North-West Mounted Police (NWMP), and was given the Royal prefix by King Edward VII in 1904. Much of the present-day organization's symbology has been inherited from its days as the NWMP, including the distinctive Red Serge uniform, paramilitary heritage, and mythos as a frontier force. The RCMP/GRC wording is specifically protected under the Trade-marks Act.
An RCMP officer in dress uniform on Parliament Hill in Ottawa, OntarioAs the federal police force of Canada, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police is primarily responsible for enforcing federal and in many cases, provincial and local laws. Unlike most other federal police forces, however, it also has a major role in front-line policing throughout the country, including in provincial jurisdictions; although the provinces and territories are constitutionally responsible for law and order, eight of the ten provinces have chosen to contract most or all of their policing responsibilities to the RCMP. The force, consequently, operates under the direction of the provincial governments in regard to provincial and municipal law enforcement. The two largest provinces, Ontario and Quebec, have opted to maintain their own provincial forces; thus the Ontario Provincial Police and Sûreté du Québec are responsible for duties conducted by the RCMP in other provinces. Newfoundland joined confederation in 1949 the RCMP entered the province and absorbed the then Newfoundland Rangers and took over that area. Today the Royal Newfoundland Constabulary has reclaimed some of that province to their jurisdiction. In the three territories, the RCMP serves as the sole territorial police force. Additionally, many municipalities throughout Canada contract the RCMP to serve as their police force.
The RCMP is responsible for an unusually large breadth of duties, from policing in isolated rural towns, the far north, and urban areas; providing protection services for the Monarch, Governor General, Prime Minister and other ministers of the Crown, visiting dignitaries, and diplomatic missions; enforcing federal laws, including wire fraud, counterfeiting, drug trafficking and other related matters; providing counterterrorism and domestic security; and participating in various international policing efforts. The RCMP Security Service was a specialized political intelligence and counterintelligence branch with national security responsibilities, but was replaced with the Canadian Security Intelligence Service in 1984, following revelations of illegal covert operations relating to the Quebec separatist movement. Duties, conduct and operational and reporting guidelines are very specifically laid out in a detailed document known as the Commissioner's Standing Orders, or CSOs.